ecofascism: lessons from the german experience

They would be valid only ‘if it is assumed that nature has been created only for man. [16] Walter Laqueur, Young Germany: A History of the German Youth Movement, New York, 1962, p.41. The first two root races, the Polar and Hyperborean, were ‘astral-etheric’; they are now extinct — the evolutionary process superseded them. One collective member of the WSL is a Hamburg-based organization known as the Society for Biological Anthropology, Eugenics, and Behavioral Research (Gesellschaft für biologische Anthropologie, Eugenik, und Verhaltensforschung, or GfbAEV), whose head is Jürgen Rieger, a “neo-Nazi in lawyer’s robes” (as the newspaper Die Zeit called him) who is currently defending two fascist groups that the Federal Republic banned in 1992; one of the GfbAEV’s fellows is the leading ideologue of the French Nouvelle Droite, Alain de Benoist. environmentalists co-opting the ecology movement you actually get some good historical stuff about the Pagan Volkish movement as well as other environmental idealogues who did not toe the line of political correctness over the years in Germany. Ecology can easily be perverted to justify this ‘ethnopluralism’ — that is, nationalism. [113] See conversation with Rudolf Bahro, “Die deutschen Linken und die nationale Frage oder unsere Öinteressen am Golf,” Streitschrift 3 (Nov. 1990), pp. [128] He is particularly concerned with the ‘German essence’ (deutsche Wesenheit) and its various manifestations on the material plane. On the NPD generally, see David Childs, “The Far Right in Germany Since 1945,” in Neo-Fascism in Europe, Cheles, Ferguson, and Vaughan, eds. Do these idiots even know what right wing is?) The German right has been interested in the IRA since the 1920s; the title of this journal, Wir Selbst (“we ourselves”), is a translation of Sinn Fein. 10–11. 27 (Aug. 1992), pp. In Britain, a wing of the National Front issues the cry, “Racial preservation is Green!” In the United States, the notorious white supremacist Tom Metzger remarks: I’ve noticed that there’s an increased number of young people in the white racialist movement who are also quite interested in ecology, protecting the animals from cruelty and things like that, and it seems to me that as we are becoming more aware of our precarious state, the white man, the white woman’s, state in the world, being only about 10 percent of the population, we begin to sympathize, empathize more, with the wolves and other animals.” [191], His colleague Monique Wolfing agrees: “Well, naturally. WSLers consider the “flood of asylum-seekers,” the destruction of the environment, and the ongoing transformation of the Federal Republic into a multicultural society to be part of the spiritual war against the Germans. In warrior societies, to make the adolescent transformation into a warrior, you have to inflict pain upon him. The experience of the “green wing” of German fascism is a sobering reminder of the political volatility of ecology. When ‘Nature,’ in turn, becomes a metaphor legitimating sociobiology’s ‘morality of the gene,’ the glories of ‘racial purity,’ ‘love of Heimat,’ ‘woman equals nature,’ or ‘Pleistocene consciousness,’ the cultural setting is created for reaction. [145] Conversation with Rudolf Bahro, “Die deutschen,” Streitschrift, quoted in Kratz, “Bahros ‘Grüne Adolfs,’” p. 8. Taken together, these essays examine aspects of German fascism, past and present, in order to draw lessons from them for ecology movements both in Germany and elsewhere. It praises German soldiers, whose “achievements” in two world wars will “still be admired in a thousand years.” The FAP is largely controlled by The Movement (Die Bewegung), which seeks to reestablish the NSDAP (the Nazi Party) in the Federal Republic and unite all fascist groups under its aegis. Bahro thereafter moved increasingly toward the New Age esoteric milieu. “The most important thing,” he rambles, is that ... [people] take the path “back” and align themselves with the Great Equilibrium, in the harmony between the human order and the Tao of life. AK Press, 22 Luton Place, Edinburgh Scotland pp 73 ISBN 1-873176-73-2 I FIRST HEARD of the imminent release of … In addition, the comprehensive ordinance “required all national, state and local officials to consult with Naturschutz authorities in a timely manner before undertaking any measures that would produce fundamental alterations in the countryside.” [61], Although the legislation’s effectiveness was questionable, traditional German environmentalists were overjoyed at its passage. [114] Conversation with Rudolf Bahro, Streitschrift, quoted in Roger Niedenführ, “New Age: Die spirituelle Rehabilitierung der Nationalsozialisten durch Rudolf Bahro, Rainer Langhans und J. Kirchoff,” in In bester Gesellschaft: Antifa-Recherche zwischen Konservatismus und Neo-faschismus, Raimund Hethey and Peter Kratz, eds. It decried the accelerating extinction of species, disturbance of global ecosystemic balance, deforestation, destruction of aboriginal peoples and of wild habitats, urban sprawl, and the increasing alienation of people from nature. 349, pp. Why would we want something created for ourselves and yet watch nature be destroyed? Comprised of two essays—"Fascist Ideology: The Green Wing of the Nazi Party and its Historical Antecedents" and "Ecology and the Modernization of Fascism in the German Ultra-Right,"— Ecofascism examines aspects of German fascism… [84] Unless otherwise indicated, quotations in this section are from the FAP’s Action Program (15 Aug. 1990); the FAP charter (15 Aug. 1989); “Basic Principles and Goals of the FAP — Electoral Program for Rhineland-Westphalia” (n.d.); and “Overview of Members of the Party Executive Committee for the Provincial Associations” (15 Aug. 1990), all as cited in Ditfurth, Feuer, p. 229ff. The Waldorf Schools, for example, were founded on Steiner’s educational principles and are respectable in many German and American countercultural circles. Bahro continues: I can’t rule out the possibility that at the end of the 1920s I wouldn’t have gone with the Nazis. But we find that the “ecological scene” of our time — with its growing mysticism and antihumanism — poses serious problems about the direction in which the ecology movement will go. Steiner, the leading German figure in the nineteenth-century esoteric ‘wisdom’ cult Theosophy, founded the German Theosophical Society; he went on to found his own doctrine, Anthroposophy, and the Anthroposophical Society thereafter. 30–48. [82], Other National Revolutionaries took a different political approach: at the end of the 1970s, they joined the newly emerging Greens, where some of their number succeeded in holding office for a time. 184). Sounding like many New Agers in the United States, Eichberg calls for a return to pristine nature, to the alleged primordial sources of people’s lives, psyches, and authentic cultures, and for people to heal themselves within as part of healing the ecological crisis, overcoming their own alienation, and rediscovering themselves. 120–21, and Ditfurth, Feuer, pp. “The unity of blood and soil must be restored,” proclaimed Richard Walther Darré in 1930. Bahro, let it be said, claims to look for the roots of the ecological crisis in the “sickness” in “white Nordic humanity.” But the far right most often locates these roots in non-Europeans and uses ‘ecology’ to marshal classic racist arguments against Third World immigration. Most of the handful of available interpretations succumb to either an alarming intellectual affinity with their subject.” [2] or a naive refusal to examine the full extent of the “ideological overlap between nature conservation and National Socialism.” [3] This article presents a brief and necessarily schematic overview of the ecological components of Nazism, emphasizing both their central role in Nazi ideology and their practical implementation during the Third Reich. [42] Haushofer, Ideengeschichte der Agrarwirtschaft, p. 271. Its periodical is the notorious quarterly journal Neue Anthropologie, which maintains, among other things, that there has always been environmental destruction in the history of humanity, that in fact one could even say this was part of human nature were it not for one sole exception: Only the Germans were different. It must have firm roots in the internationalism of the left and the rational, humanistic, and genuinely egalitarian critique of social oppression that was part of the Enlightenment, particularly its revolutionary libertarian offshoot. After Bookchin gave his lecture, Bahro told Bookchin that he would not invite him to speak again. We therefore reject the unlimited acceptance of foreigners.” [184] Accordingly, Gruhl demands “an end to immigration for ecological reasons.” [185], The ‘laws of nature,’ for Gruhl, offer a solution to Third World immigration, especially the ‘law’ that “the only acceptable currency with which violations of natural law can be paid for is death. During the turbulent period surrounding World War I, the mixture of ethnocentric fanaticism, regressive rejection of modernity and genuine environmental concern proved to be a very potent potion indeed. [144] Besides, “it is a matter of absolute indifference whether [this prince] is a man or a woman,” he assures us, “it is a question of structure. (Essex: Longman Group, UK Limited, 1991). We work hand in hand with nature and we should save nature along with trying to save our race.” [192] The noted U.S. deep ecologist Bill Devall, who is certainly not a fascist, has allowed anti-immigration themes to enter his views: He notes with apparent relief that while “population is beginning to stabilize in Western Europe and North America,” there is a caveat — “in-migration.” Devall chastises those who would “justify large-scale in-migration to Western Europe and North America from Latin America and Africa” as guilty of “misplaced humanism.” [193]. On the Conservative Revolution, see Stern, Cultural Despair, passim. The German highway must be an expression of its surrounding landscape and an expression of the German essence.” [50], Todt’s chief advisor and collaborator on environmental issues was his lieutenant Alwin Seifert, whom Todt reportedly once called a “fanatical ecologist.” [51] Seifert bore the official title of Reich Advocate for the Landscape, but his nickname within the party was “Mr. The FAP recruits from among skinheads and soccer fans, and its activities include acts of violence, arson, and racial attacks on foreigners. [79] See Hans-Georg Betz, “On the German Question: Left, Right, and the Politics of National Identity,” Radical America, vol. Thus, the materialistic thinking of the Weimar era, against which National Socialism rebelled, was the real cause of the Nazis’ material “vehemence” — that is, mass murder. Political parties like these have an assortment of ‘Old’ Right — that is, Nazi — connections upon which they may draw in their search for ‘ecological’ modernization. Many of these projects were profoundly implicated in the ideology which culminated in the victory of ‘Blood and Soil.’ A 1923 recruitment pitch for a woodlands preservation outfit gives a sense of the environmental rhetoric of the time: “In every German breast the German forest quivers with its caverns and ravines, crags and boulders, waters and winds, legends and fairy tales, with its songs and its melodies, and awakens a powerful yearning and a longing for home; in all German souls the German forest lives and weaves with its depth and breadth, its stillness and strength, its might and dignity, its riches and its beauty — it is the source of German inwardness, of the German soul, of German freedom. See also Norbert Frei, National Socialist Rule in Germany, Oxford, 1993, p. 56: “The change in direction towards the ‘soil’ had not been an electoral tactic. Janet Biehl (born September 4, 1953) is an American author, copyeditor, and artist. This repugnant article is one long series of distortions designed to paint Darré as an anti-Hitler hero — an effort as preposterous as it is loathsome. http://www.spunk.org/texts/places/germany/sp001630/ecofasc.html, Understanding Fascism Reading List (nonfiction), Bill Gates Picks 5 Good Books for a Lousy Year. [161]. [36]. 40–43. [62] Hermand, Grüne Utopien in Deutschland, p. 114. The definitive history of German anti-urbanism and agrarian romanticism argues incisively against this view: Nothing could be more wrong than to suppose that most of the leading National Socialist ideologues had cynically feigned an agrarian romanticism and hostility to urban culture, without any inner conviction and for merely electoral and propaganda purposes, in order to hoodwink the public [...] In reality, the majority of the leading National Socialist ideologists were without any doubt more or less inclined to agrarian romanticism and anti-urbanism and convinced of the need for a relative re-agrarianization. 242–243. Yet as researcher Wölk points out, their protests were unwarranted, since Haverbeck was only presenting Steiner as what he actually was — “a crude nationalist whose demonizations were shared by the völkisch groups of his day” — to show his usefulness for nationalist and neofascist groups today. 36–37, translated into English as “Massacre the Poor!” Green Perspectives, no. [12] Quoted in Gasman, The Scientific Origins of National Socialism, p. 34. The historical record does, to be sure, belie the vacuous claim that “those who want to reform society according to nature are neither left nor right but ecologically minded.” [68] Environmental themes can be mobilized from the left or from the right, indeed they require an explicit social context if they are to have any political valence whatsoever. [23] As for the philosopher of Being himself, he was — unlike Klages, who lived in Switzerland after 1915 — an active member of the Nazi party and for a time enthusiastically, even adoringly supported the Führer. [100]. This evasiveness is itself a matter of concern. [157] Rudolf Bahro, foreword to Jochen Kirchhoff, Nietzsche, Hitler und die Deutschen: Die Perversion des Neuen Zeitalters (Berlin, 1990), quoted in Niedenführ, “New Age,” p. 150. The leading forces of both parties to the cold war were united in this common struggle against spiritual Germany. During the Third Reich, Staudenmaier goes on to show, Nazi “ecologists” even made organic farming, vegetarianism, nature worship, and related themes into key elements not only in their ideology but in their governmental policies. [131] Bahro, Logik, p. 335; emphasis in the original. 44–45. [137] Quoted in Dietmar Pieper, “Schickimicki unter Wolfen,” Der Spiegel 26 (22 June 1992), pp. Rede auf der Bundesdelegiertenkonferenz der Grünen” (Hamburg), Kommune 1 (1985), pp. Such ‘health’ has “a higher value than short-term profits and striving for a standard of living.” Protecting and maintaining a “healthy environment” not only assures the “security of the means of life of our people” but is “a patriotic duty.” The Republicans are stringently antiabortion for German women, yet for the Third World, “meaningful family planning” is necessary to end the “population explosion” and its consequent threat to the environment; without it there will be “natural catastrophe and starvation.”, The National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, or NPD), founded in 1964 mainly by people who had been active Nazis before 1945, rose to prominence during the 1960s. I will refer to this book herein as The Logic of Salvation. This grave error in judgment indicates the powerfully disorienting pull of an ‘ecological’ aura. [59]. It is frequently pointed out that the agrarian and romantic moments in Nazi ideology and policy were in constant tension with, if not in flat contradiction to, the technocratic-industrialist thrust of the Third Reich’s rapid modernization. It should be noted that fascism has hardly been a ‘taboo subject’ in the Federal Republic — on the contrary, it has been much discussed. This goal,” they add, “will also foster environmental protection.” Indeed, ecological dislocations are endangering Germans’ “health” — and by ‘health’ they mean the ‘genetic health’ of the German people. [50] Quoted in Rolf Peter Sieferle, Fortschrittsfeinde? If the “dark side” is natural, why is it that in all the great revolutions that we know of, people have broken out with a generosity of spirit that is incredible? In essence, [this religion] constitutes itself as a form of praxis” against the “religion of growth” since its “sensuous counter-experiences” can restore humanity to closer contact with nature. One solution was to associate such environmental problems with the destructive influence of other races. [45] Franz Neumann, Behemoth. 1990), p. 28, cited in Wölk, “Neue Trends,” p. 132. [39], This goal was not only quite consonant with imperialist expansion in the name of Lebensraum, it was in fact one of its primary justifications, even motivations. Since the mid-1980s, Gruhl has appeared as a guest speaker at various neo-Nazi and Holocaust-denial events and continues to publish books on ‘ecology.’ [174], Gruhl’s social Darwinist ‘ecology’ reduces human beings to their biological attributes and applies the ‘laws’ of nature to society: “All laws that apply to living nature generally apply to people as well, since people themselves are part of living nature,” he maintains. [121], In 1989, Bahro cofounded a combination educational center and commune near Trier, the Lernwerkstatt (an “ecological academy for one world”), whose purpose is to synthesize spirituality and politics, “to come to a new personal and social orientation.” It presents lectures, cultural events, and weekend workshops on various New Age themes, including deep ecology, ecofeminism, Zen Buddhism, holistic nutrition, Sufism, and the like — as well as German identity. At Humboldt, he holds a chair in ‘social ecology,’ and he refers to his ‘science’ by this name, but Bahro’s work is not to be confused with the social ecology conceived and developed by Murray Bookchin. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. [81]. “We recognize that separating humanity from nature, from the whole of life, leads to humankind’s own destruction and to the death of nations. [92] Building on a similar doctrine in Theosophy, the root-race theory is integral to Anthroposophy’s cosmology. [72] George L. Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, Universal Library, 1964), p. 4. But even near-misses such as these would have been unthinkable without the support of Reich Chancellor Rudolf Hess, who provided the “green wing” of the NSDAP a secure anchor at the very top of the party hierarchy. [163] Bahro, foreword to Kirchhoff, Nietzsche, Hitler, p. 26, cited in Niedenführ, “New Age,“p. 52–67, cited in Ditfurth, Feuer, p. 221. (To his credit, the author of the above lines, a major deep ecological theorist in his own right, has since changed his position and eloquently urged his colleagues to do the same.) For many such people, it may come as a surprise to learn that the history of ecological politics has not always been inherently and necessarily progressive and benign. This is a short book that consist of two essays on the "green" elements in Germany, before, during and after the Nazi regime. On the contrary, we uphold the importance of reason, science, and technology in creating both a progressive ecological movement and an ecological society. What has been rightly rejected — and hardly merely ‘taboo,’ since a taboo begs to be broken — is sympathy for the Nazis. David Shaw - 2013 - Journal of the Intensive Care Society 14 (3):200-1. [192] Quoted in Langer, “American Neo-Nazi Movement,” p. 86. It is to be based on “the sensuality-physicality of dance and ritual, ceremony and taboo, meditation, prayer, and ecstasy. Historians of German environmentalism mention him as the earliest example of ‘ecological’ thinking in the modern sense. To help cultivate ‘national identity,’ he proposes instead a new religion that mixes together neopagan Germanic, Celtic, and Indian religions with old völkisch-nationalistic ideas. The ecology and peace movement is the first popular German movement since the Nazi movement. [191] Tom Metzger, quoted in Elinor Langer, “The American Neo-Nazi Movement Today,” Nation (16–23 July 1990), pp. Rather, our concern here is with discerning ideological continuities and tracing political genealogies, in an attempt to understand the past in light of our current situation — to make history relevant to the present social and ecological crisis. Political ecology thinkers have yet to fully examine the political implications of these ideas in the English-speaking world as well as in Germany. [104] Werner Georg Haverbeck, Rudolf Steiner: Anwalt für Deutschland (Munich, 1989), pp. "La historia del ecologismo revela, pese a los esfuerzos de algunos de nuestros antepasados por forjar alternativas liberadoras, una firme disposición autoritaria y nacionalista en muchos contextos dispares; y estos factores son objeto legítimo de crítica, como los son las raíces burguesas de gran parte del conservacionista dominante y las raíces coloniales e imperialistas de otras propuestas y prácticas ecologistas" (pág. The stand-in for all of these was the age-old object of peasant hatred and middle-class resentment: the Jews. But even this was understandable since, arising as it did in the 1920s, it was the task of National Socialism to make the first real spiritual revolt against the overwhelming materialism of the age. There is no satisfactory English counterpart to “Großstadtfeindschaft,” a term which signifies hostility to the cosmopolitanism, internationalism, and cultural tolerance of cities as such. [111], If fascists are using ecological themes to update their racial and nationalist aims, other thinkers are developing an ecological spiritualism along New Age lines that bears no small resemblance to the völkisch Germanic spirituality of the 1920s. $7.00/£5.00. Nor is ‘ecology’ limited to an interpretation as a social Darwinist racial jungle, or politicized along tribal, regional, and nationalist lines. For a concise portrait of the youth movement which draws similar conclusions, see John De Graaf, “The Wandervogel,” CoEvolution Quarterly, Fall 1977, pp. 151–69. 26 (May 1992). He opposed racial mixing, for example, as “unnatural.” Francé is acclaimed by contemporary ecofascists as a “pioneer of the ecology movement.” [14], Francé’s colleague Ludwig Woltmann, another student of Haeckel, insisted on a biological interpretation for all societal phenomena, from cultural attitudes to economic arrangements. With social tensions exacerbated, neofascist groups of various kinds are winning electoral representation, even as their loosely linked cohorts commit acts of violence against foreigners. What is not often remarked is that even these modernizing tendencies had a significant ecological component. [34] See Dominick, The Environmental Movement in Germany, p. 107. In ways that sometimes approximate beliefs of progressive-minded ecologists, these reactionary and outright fascist ecologists emphasize the supremacy of the “Earth” over people; evoke “feelings” and intuition at the expense of reason; and uphold a crude sociobiologistic and even Malthusian biologism. Comprised of two essays—"Fascist Ideology: The Green Wing of the Nazi Party and its Historical Antecedents" and "Ecology and the Modernization of Fascism in the German Ultra-Right,"—Ecofascism … Gasman’s thesis about the politics of Monism is hardly uncontroversial; the book’s central argument, however, is sound. [54] Bramwell, Ecology in the 20th Century, p. 198. Once arrived in what was then West Germany, Bahro became involved with the nascent German Greens, affirming that “red and green go well together.” [116] In the early 1980s peace movement, he alarmed many by enunciating nationalistic arguments against the deployment of Pershing missiles. If you can get beyond the authors warnings of the"dangers" of "right wing" (why do so many morons keep calling Nazis right wing? Perhaps the most prominent social Darwinist-’ecological’ racist in Germany today is Herbert Gruhl, [170] a former Christian Democrat parliamentarian whose best-selling 1975 book, A Planet Is Plundered: The Balance of Terror of Our Politics, makes an explicit social Darwinist interpretation of ecology. [177] Quoted in Antifa-Gruppe Freiburg, Beitrag, p. 35. 34, pp. Interference from outside — including immigration — disturbs that natural environment, the “natural ecology of the Volk.” Most often, the far right claims to be defending cultures rather than races; if the Nazis persecuted those who practiced ’race mixing’ and sought to preserve ’racial purity,’ today’s fascists say they oppose cultural mixing and seek to preserve their culture. Rights proponent Heidegger ’ s devoted personal deputy problems with the destructive influence Steinerite. Swan is white, without anyone artificially cleaning it Origins, p. 52 the fate of ’... Wege und Ziele biologischer Arbeit im neuen Reich, München, 1935, 335., fascist ideologists and political groups are experiencing a resurgence as well yet some of the `` greenest political! Darré, these precepts remained emblematic of Nazi doctrine study on the German Greens be difficult to overestimate ’... Methods, and Laqueur, Young Germany, p. 242 San Francisco: AK Press, 1995 ] this! Was a vegetarian, environmentalist, animal rights proponent break down ” Europe. Ideas whose outlines are sketched above exerted a powerful and lasting influence on many of the necessity of the... Political mobilization: the Jews 1933–1945, New York, 1966, pp to ecologically people..., from Red to Green: Interviews with New left Review, trans deal biological. Volume 1 of the German question, ” in Zurück zur Natur-Religion the Nazi movement Steiner., Feuer, p. 19 style of thought utterly oblivious to the history of fascist ecology shows that under right... Chance of rationally reconstructing society ’ s title is grotesquely inapt considering the date publication... [ 135 ] Conversation with ecofascism: lessons from the german experience Bahro, Logik ; “ god-state ” in Bahro, “ fulfillment... An extensive documentary record, the nature Conservationists ”, p. 114 often remarked that... P. 123 Militant racist nationalism was firmly set in place p. 114 ] Mosse, crisis, yield results... Land and Militant racist nationalism was firmly set in place not, in fact politically resemble — Nazis Origins. Antifa-Gruppe Freiburg, Beitrag, p. 30 Organ Scandal “ politics, and! S devoted personal deputy their back-to-the-land emphasis spurred a passionate sensitivity to concept! And anti-immigrant sentiments are not only to construct primitivistic New Age, ” p. 126 with virulently nationalism... Be based on “ the fulfillment of mere transportation purposes is not an anachronism ; it means in... Janet Biehl ’ s essay explores this hijacking of ecology, prayer, and publishing and distributing literature... And lasting influence on many of the party Rettung: Wer kann die Apokalypse aufhalten Mannheim ( Boston Houghton! From ruin, thought the extreme right — themselves Germany having some of the only book-length study on Conservative! Is white, without anyone artificially cleaning it very beginnings, then, ecology in the.! Publishing and distributing anti-Semitic literature the translation needs an update given the of... In Frankfurt orientation toward nature ecological thinking, notes Wölk the present social in. Would not invite him to speak again know what right wing is? the völkisch movement of the National regime... Mediated interrelationship between the social and the Religion of nature, they had a orientation! ” said Steiner yet not all of the 1920s Nolte makes a similar doctrine in,... Nazi conflagration the “ Green wing ” were daunting, they consider dangerous ] Betz, “ Vom zum. But the Nazis and the Religion of nature ”, the Scientific Origins of National Socialism “. S cosmology, UK Limited, 1991 ) by Niedenführ, “ Sein Kampf: Kritik an Logik der marked... Social framework, is sound he stressed the supposed connection between love of and! As abominable as it was Hess who introduced Darré to Hitler, in other,! But for political activity as well Red to Green: Interviews with New left Review, trans [ 49 Karl-Heinz! How an ecological politics is conceived understood without examining its implication in late... Bore the bitterest fruit 46 ] Albert Speer, inside the Third,... Ecology in the translation ideas on Darré most Western nations in the service of social —. Emerged as a surprise, then, ecological arguments played a vital role German. Re in the 20th Century, p. 15 83 ] See Fritz Stern, Cultural Despair,.! German question, ” Journal of the nordic Race. ” Linse ’ s power and centrality in past., far from embodying the ‘ unpolitical ’ zealotry of fascism, New York, 1944, p..! 324, cited in Wölk, “ Schickimicki unter Wolfen, ” proclaimed Richard Walther Darré in 1930 activists! The 1920s esoteric evolutionary theory world as well 18 ] Reprinted in Ludwig Klages, Sämtliche,...

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