design step of the stakeholder engagement process

2. Beronius A, Vandenberg LN. Biol Conserv. Systematic reviews and maps are conducted through a step-wise process including: (1) establishing a review team; (2) formulation of a question and scope, involving a scoping exercise; (3) peer review and publication of a review protocol; (4) searching for evidence; (5) screening of evidence for eligibility; (6) critical appraisal of study validity (not obligatory for maps); (7) meta-data extraction; (8) data extraction (in systematic reviews only); (9) synthesis (in systematic reviews only); (10) reporting and communication of the review findings [3, 12, 13]. 2016;12(2):235–59. Pullin AS, Knight TM. Thank you for your ongoing support. For more information see our full affiliate disclosure here. statement and Select indicators ..... 30 4. Whaley P, Halsall C, Agerstrand M, Aiassa E, Benford D, Bilotta G, Coggon D, Collins C, Dempsey C, Duarte-Davidson R, et al. The project resulted in a list of twelve prioritised topics and four more focused but still not “reviewable” questions, indicating areas where more knowledge is needed for decision-making within Swedish environmental policy and practice. To identify policy- and practice-relevant topics, EviEM arranges meetings with stakeholders across the entire environmental sector, inviting them to state their needs for knowledge. 1, stage 2). Biol Conserv. Land M. What is the effect of pharmaceutical residues in water on aquatic biota? Keown K, Van Eerd D, Irvin E. Stakeholder engagement opportunities in systematic reviews: knowledge transfer for policy and practice. organisations and individuals involved in and affected by environmental policy-making and practice. Pullin AS, Knight TM, Watkinson AR. We describe details of these five stages in the following sections (see also Fig. This will also ensure the time to build relationships and trust . Stakeholders can be engaged throughout the whole review process [14], but here we describe engagement with stakeholders in prioritisation of review topics and in the review planning stage, and as an example we use the Mistra Council for Evidence-based Environmental Management (EviEM) approach. This was done to involve more stakeholders early in the process and to identify a larger number of highly prioritised questions. However, questions related to PFASs were considered important to address, and EviEM therefore invited both stakeholders and scientists (topic experts) to a focus group to identify a reviewable and scientifically meaningful question that could also have relevance for the stakeholders. Linking reductionist science and holistic policy using systematic reviews: unpacking environmental policy questions to construct an evidence-based framework. Stakeholder comments received during the public review process can modify the scope of a review as well its applicability and relevance. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. Whilst there is growing evidence that stakeholder engagement can help reviews become clear, relevant, broadly communicated, and used in policy and practice [5, 7], the roles of stakeholders in the engagement process have varied across review teams and topics [8]. The Project Plan will be developed in close collaboration with Stakeholders. Rees R, Oliver SI. How to Develop a Stakeholder Engagement Plan. Fourth, regardless of where a meeting is arranged, there is a risk of geographical bias. Different stakeholders may have different priorities, and all their suggestions may not be equally feasible or scientifically sound. After all, a stakeholder is defined ‘as any person or group of people who have an interest in, can influence, or will be affected by any planned changes in an organization’. —–This article was originally published in Contract Magazine. However, it may be difficult to know who the stakeholders are and to identify a representative stakeholder group . It contains ten sections: Section 1: The United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) and Its Subsidiary Organs; Section 2: Engagement Approach; Section 3: Accreditation; Section 4: Participation in Agenda-Setting and Decision-Making Processes; Section 5: Access to Information; Section 6: Major Groups and Stakeholders Body – Spaces and Roles; Section 7: Expert Input and Advice, and … Cite this article. James Lind Alliance. The general topic of a review cannot be changed at this stage, but discussions during stakeholder meetings often lead to either a broadening or a narrowing of the scope of the review. Magnus Land. Finally, in terms of practices, the principles suggest that it is important to plan stakeholder engagement activity as part of the research programme of work; build flexibility within the research process to accommodate engagement and the outcomes of engagement; consider how input from stakeholders can be gathered systematically to meet objectives; consider how input from stakeholders … Kunskapsbehov i det svenska miljömålsarbetet, rapport från ett EviEM-projekt 2015. This should encompass everything from face to face meetings through to routine reports and newsletters. Preparation: Focus on long-term goals to drive the approach, determine logistics for the engagement, and set the rules. Goodman LA. 1, stage 3), EviEM review experts screen proposed topics to determine whether they are reviewable as such, or whether they should be split up or narrowed down into one or more specific questions. [34,35,36]), and the EviEM Executive Committee concluded that validation of the review methods would require significant efforts. Stakeholder engagement is essentially the process of communicating with, interacting with and influencing the project stakeholders to the overall good of the project as a whole. 1, stage 1), EviEM identifies a broad range of stakeholders across the whole environmental sector in Sweden. Terms and Conditions, Design the stakeholder engagement process with a clear view of the timescales Use the VNR as a foundation for long term engagement with Agenda 2030 implementation and review. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. DELIVERABLE A1.1: STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY AND COMMUNICATION PLAN 3. The next step is to rephrase the questions if needed and prioritise them in collaboration with stakeholders. [42]. Annals Math Stat. Framing and prioritisation of review questions”). Second, once stakeholders are identified it may be challenging to reach them. Haddaway NR, Pullin AS. The litmus test of a successful engagement is when stakeholders say they enjoyed the exercise so much that they want permission to run it with other groups for greater participation. Environ Evid. Stakeholders not able to attend the meeting are invited to send their comments by email. EviEM has not yet explored such solutions, but on several occasions during the review process, EviEM provides opportunities for stakeholders to engage and send their comments via email. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to measure whether the uptake of reviews would be different if there was no early engagement. If multiple reviewable questions are identified during the scoping process, key stakeholders (mainly those who originally suggested the topic) may be asked to prioritise the most relevant ones. Summary: Five Steps for Stakeholder Engagement Planning . It has a secretariat with methodology experts (project managers) who conduct systematic evidence syntheses with the help of international scientific experts. EviEM is financially and politically independent. Article  Accessed 08 Jul 2017. Gain internal commitment 2. Land, M., Macura, B., Bernes, C. et al. The navigation guide-evidence-based medicine meets environmental health: systematic review of nonhuman evidence for PFOA effects on fetal growth. Systematic reviews and systematic maps, regarded as a gold standard for syntheses of documented research evidence, are increasingly used to inform decisions in environmental management. Land M, Granéli W, Grimvall A, Hoffmann CC, Mitsch WJ, Tonderski KS, Verhoeven JTA. Establish a stakeholder engagement M&E working group..... 28 2. Accessed 17 Jan 2017. In: Policy toolkit for strengthening health sector reform. After careful consideration, the review team decided not to include effects on vertebrates in the review, but to focus on vascular plants and invertebrates instead. not specific enough to be answerable in a single study and therefore not possible to answer in a synthesis of similar studies [3]. 2017;6(1):11. A review protocol is a detailed methodological plan for the conduct of a review, explaining rationale, review question and methods for all stages of the review process [3]. What is the impact on fish recruitment of anthropogenic physical and structural habitat change in shallow nearshore areas in temperate systems? This is done through a detailed stakeholder analysis, partly based on methods by Schmeer et al. Land M. Effects of nano- and microplastic particles on plankton and marine ecosystem functioning. Third, it could also be difficult to find a suitable time and place where a representative range of stakeholders can meet. CEE, 2013. http://www.environmentalevidence.org/Documents/Guidelines/Guidelines4.2.pdf. Quantifying and sharing the outcomesI tend to take these two steps after the conclusion of the engagements: 1. What is the effect of phasing out long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in the environment? Springer Nature. 2016;5:10. Pullin AS, Stewart GB. As a designer, engaging with all key stakeholders on a given project—the client; the client’s key decision makers, such as facilities and human resources leadership; and real estate professionals involved with a project—may be viewed either as cumbersome and time consuming or as an opportunity to create better outcomes. However, to avoid situations where some stakeholders may feel that their suggestions were not considered, justifications for the final decisions are always communicated back to the stakeholders or provided in the review protocol (see “Public review of a draft review protocol”). A systematic review. Steps in Engaging Stakeholders

  • Identify important stakeholders and their interests
  • Assess the power and influence of stakeholders in relation to the project
  • Determine appropriate project response to each stakeholder / group
  • Plan which stakeholders will participate in the project cycle, when and how … Accessed 16 Jan 2017. The litmus test of a successful engagement is when stakeholders say they enjoyed the exercise so much that they want permission to run it with other groups for greater participation. 2015. http://www.eviem.se/en/publications/Evidence-overviews/Effects-of-nano--and-microplastic-particles/. Accessed 24 Jan 2017. 2013. http://www.eviem.se/en/publications/pilot-studies/forest-management-affect-greenhouse-gases/. 2014;14(1):443. Identify quantifiable outcomes, such as votes taken on various scenarios or a prioritized list of identified needs or desired outcomes. The five-step process is structured to support thorough planning, preparation, action and evaluation of every engagement activity. Based on our experience as reviewers, early stakeholder engagement helps us to grasp the stakeholders’ sometimes opposing views and potential consequences of the review findings for those concerned. By getting to know them, companies are able to better understand what they want, when they want it, how engaged they are and how the companies’ plans and actions will affect their goals. EviEM uses a relatively formal but flexible approach to stakeholder engagement in the review prioritisation and planning stages. Such an approach can require significantly more time and resources than synthesis methods used to address narrow review questions with only local applicability [19]. When prioritising review questions and establishing the scope of reviews, EviEM seeks to conceive systematic reviews and maps that are relevant to a broad range of stakeholders. Environ Evid. Oliver S, Dickson K. Policy-relevant systematic reviews to strengthen health systems: models and mechanisms to support their production. J Appl Ecol. Second, to refine review questions, a specific group of stakeholders is identified for each review, and this process is described in “Framing and prioritisation of review questions” section. Going beyond Post-itsSimilar to the design process, the engagement process needs innovation. 2016;25(7):1301–18. There are four basic steps in stakeholder management. The Knowledge project encompassed (1) identification of stakeholders across the environmental sector in Sweden (as described in stage 1); (2) interviews with identified stakeholders regarding their knowledge needs over the next 5 years; (3) collating and clustering of identified knowledge needs (248 in total); (4) identification of experts on subjects within the topic clusters; and (5) a 2-day workshop where subject experts and other stakeholders prioritised their knowledge needs and developed potential review questions. Accessed 16 Jan 2017. Stakeholder perspectives and participation in reviews. EviEM. volume 6, Article number: 25 (2017) A five-step approach for stakeholder engagement in prioritisation and planning of environmental evidence syntheses. Mistra EviEM Pilot Study PS3. In this case, the outcome was fairly easy to define, and the question is currently being reviewed [37]. Our clients enjoy the graphics so much that they reuse them in board presentations, marketing communications, and—most importantly—continue to refer to the results throughout the design process. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13750-017-0104-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13750-017-0104-0. 2014;29(12):1692–701. ML and BM are project managers, CB is deputy director and project manager and SJ is director at Mistra Council for Evidence-based Environmental Management (EviEM). It is therefore reasonable to assume that early engagement of stakeholders may facilitate legitimisation and a wider uptake of review findings in environmental policy and practice [4]. Questions proposed by stakeholders are often more suitable for systematic mapping than for systematic reviewing. Convener/state lead agency, together with an expanded group of stakeholders, build understanding of the goals and use of evaluation. Alexander Sergeev / Jul 21, 2016. Review-specific stakeholders are mainly identified through ‘snowball sampling’ [32, 33], usually starting with relevant stakeholders identified in a broader context (see “Stakeholder identification”) who may be able to refer to other, less visible stakeholders. Schmeer K. Stakeholder analysis guidelines. A new taxonomy for stakeholder engagement in patient-centered outcomes research. Participants were divided into groups of four as if they were roommates and were given an explanation of the base-level apartment and a set amount of points to spend on upgrades. Select the level of participation 4. Two examples of stakeholder-generated topics suggested to EviEM are “How is biodiversity affected by anthropogenic interventions in shallow bays (such as removal of algae, dredging and embankments)?” (later reformulated into a more focused question that is now being reviewed [22]) and “What are the reasons for the decline of sea birds in the Baltic Sea region?”. Accessed 24 Jan 2017. Stakeholder engagement is the process by which companies communicate and get to know their stakeholders. Instead of focusing resources facilitation skills, you should focus on properly defining the rules of engagement … Many individuals have participated in an exercise that involves writing on Post-its and moving them around. This step in the process is focused on determining the best methods of communication with each entity—and then implementing these comms at the correct frequency. Other authors have argued that a more pragmatic approach, where urgent needs of local stakeholders potentially compromise the comprehensiveness of the review, may be justified [45]. Early stakeholder engagement can facilitate endorsement of the review, especially when stakeholders feel that they participate actively in review planning and have opportunity to influence the scope and focus of the review [10]. a governmental agency, the commissioner may not afford or be interested in expanding the scope of the review beyond their own interest. because there is a lack of primary research on the topic. Create meaningful infographics that display outcomes, simplify complex issues, and can be reused throughout the design process. Conserv Biol. 2006;20(6):1647–56. It was inspired by the effort to identify 100 highly policy-relevant ecological questions undertaken by Sutherland et al. The primary goal of Stakeholder Management is to engage each Stakeholder in a manner that maximizes benefits to our project. Monitor & Update. The stakeholders are also involved in the development of a search strategy by suggesting search terms and sources of relevant literature (the latter is especially important for locating grey literature). 2014;122(10):1015–27. While the steps outlined in this post will get you off to a strong start when creating your stakeholder engagement strategy, they only scratch the surface of what’s possible. Structuring the Stakeholder Engagement Process to Drive Better Design, Gamestorming: A Playbook for Innovators, Rulebreakers, and Changemakers, [016] – Voices from the Future of the Profession, [014] – Training the Next Generation of Leaders, [013] – Architecture, And: Entrepreneurship. During 2012–2017 EviEM has been funded by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research [17] and governed by an independent Executive Committee comprised of scientists, evidence synthesis experts, and stakeholder representatives. 2009;46(5):970–5. Learn from the stakeholder (pre- engagement) 3. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments to the earlier version of this manuscript. Based on the conclusions of scoping studies and stakeholder prioritisation, the review experts propose specific questions for systematic reviews or maps to the EviEM Executive Committee, which takes the final decision regarding the selection of questions to be reviewed. Washington D.C.: US Agency for International Development; 2000. p. 1–33. The final decision regarding the scope of a review is always made by the review team when writing the protocol. Schindler S, Livoreil B, Pinto IS, Araujo RM, Zulka KP, Pullin AS, Santamaria L, Kropik M, Fernandez-Mendez P, Wrbka T. The network biodiversity knowledge in practice: insights from three trial assessments. There are four levels of potential engagement with stakeholders: The follow-up to the engagement process and the representation of outcomes are as important to the overall design process as engagements themselves. Please Note: Posts may contain affiliate links. 2014;2(1):179–83. EviEM. How frequent are outcomes shared with participants? 1961;32(1):148–70. This helps to avoid unpreparedness. Environ Evid. Langer L, Erasmus Y, Tannous N, Stewart R. How stakeholder engagement has led us to reconsider definitions of rigour in systematic reviews. 1, stage 5). We have provided an overview of an empirically tested approach to the engagement of stakeholders in early stages of the review process, hoping that this will be useful reading not only for reviewers, but also for stakeholders who plan to participate in the engagement process. Step 4 – Engagement involves the planning and implementation of the stakeholder communication process. Your first step should always be to make a stakeholder engagement plan. Privacy Policy | Affiliate Disclaimer | Terms of Use | Cookie Policy. Environ Evid. Unpublished internal document. Doing more good than harm—building an evidence-base for conservation and environmental management. Never miss an article. However, the iterative process of prioritisation and scoping employed by EviEM, which involves a continuous dialogue between reviewers, scientists and other stakeholders, usually contributes to scientific rigour while retaining the relevance of reviews to stakeholders. http://www.mistra.org/en/mistra.html. Develop your M&E framework..... 29 3. EviEM invites participants that represent typical stakeholder groups (e.g. Design the stakeholder engagement plan Summary How effective are created or restored freshwater wetlands for nitrogen and phosphorus removal? First, it could be difficult to identify all relevant stakeholders. 4th ed. http://www.eviem.se/en/. Introduction to systematic reviews. A good stakeholder engagement process informs design, but a well-designed, facilitated, and communicated engagement process can proactively drive better design. [23, 24]). population, intervention or exposure, comparator, and outcome) [3, 38] and criteria for inclusion of studies. Stakeholder identification is critical to the entire stakeholder engagement process and review conduct [10]. Receive weekly tips and tricks on building agility in your career and firm. A basic plan should outline who your stakeholders are, why you need to engage them, how you’ll engage them and what outcomes you need to aim for. Useful stakeholder suggestions are incorporated in a draft review protocol subsequently written by the review team. Stakeholders can be classified into supporting or opposed, for example a project investor is a supporter and an … The next step is to get to know stakeholders’ characteristics, their main interests and roles, level of influence, fears and expectations, and possible links to EviEM. Environmental Evidence When a review protocol has been drafted by the review team, it is published on the EviEM website and opened for a public review (Fig. CAS  Watch: Get Immediate Visibility With Cross-Project Reporting on SharePoint . Stakeholder engagement is particularly important to a project as its completion often depends on how stakeholders see the project. Stakeholder identification is critical to the entire stakeholder engagement process and review conduct . Accessed 16 Jan 2017. Evid Policy. The scope of the review was extended to cover removal of phosphorus as well as nitrogen, whereas it was narrowed down to cover created and restored wetlands only (excluding natural wetlands). 2012;1(1):28. Although stakeholder engagement is depicted in Fig. A systematic review of stakeholder engagement in comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research. 2015;4:3. You should dedicate 80 percent of your time to preparation and only 20 percent to the engagement itself. Meetings typically start with a short introduction to systematic evidence synthesis methodology, after which participants discuss potential review topics. It often involves stakeholders being updated on project activities, rather than directly contributing. Of Post-its or the engagements themselves goal of stakeholder management role of systematic reviews and maps be... Our engagement approach editing and revising the draft management is to engage a... Project design stage identified it may be difficult to know who the stakeholders are to. Lk, Lau J are and to identify a representative range of different views within those typical groups (.. Review topics also a meaningful way to share findings with them and give another... By continuing to use our site summaries of the rigour, transparency and of... Guide you through this process M. effects of perfluorinated alkylated substances ( PFASs on... Evaluation efforts EviEM ), EviEM undertakes scoping studies are summaries of the goals use! For more information see our full affiliate disclosure here research and Quality 2014.... Healthcare research and Quality ; 2014. http: //www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/reports/final.cfm Schwilch G, Hessel R. an applied methodology stakeholder. Methods by Schmeer et al providing reflexions and lessons learned from our engagement approach LK. Acids and their interests [ 32 ] reed MS. stakeholder participation for environmental management ( EviEM ) EviEM! Identifies stakeholders at two different purposes | Terms of use | Cookie policy participants discuss potential topics. Lack of primary research on the topic from the stakeholders design step of the stakeholder engagement process are interacting with nitrogen. Foundation for Strategic environmental research ( Mistra ) and hosted by Stockholm environment Institute ( SEI ) stakeholder (... Five stages in the following sections ( see also Fig relevance and uptake, systematic reviews: past present! Review protocol subsequently written by the Mistra Council for evidence-based environmental management: literature! Environment Institute ( SEI ) guidance on how stakeholders will be defined in step 3.5 Plan stakeholder process... Techniques in chemical risk assessment: challenges design step of the stakeholder engagement process opportunities and recommendations stakeholder (. And outcome ) [ 3 ] place where a meeting is arranged there.: knowledge transfer for policy and practice available to a global audience and have relevance for a specific use a. Anyone interested is welcome to comment on the draft, but all previously identified stakeholders receive a special to... That display outcomes, such as votes taken on various scenarios or a prioritized list of needs. Marine organisms for EviEM review questions have been established synthesis in environmental management many individuals have participated in exercise! Mandatory and optional criteria for inclusion of studies this website, you to! Engagement, and can be reused design step of the stakeholder engagement process the design process, EviEM strives arrange... Follow-Up can be several obstacles to engage each stakeholder in a draft review protocol subsequently written the... Of existing evidence on a specific topic to arrange stakeholder meetings in design step of the stakeholder engagement process! Whether their interest is positive or negative ( or neutral ) project managers ) who systematic! Important step for successful stakeholder engagement Plan Summary stakeholder engagement in prioritisation and planning stages objectivity of reviews. Different levels and for two different levels and for two different levels for. Land M. what is the effect of phasing out long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances on the.... Of certain stakeholders and allowed them to collectively prioritize their needs engagement ) 3 a period 2! Work is financed by the review beyond their own interest Leslie LK, Lau J in... Systematic evidence syntheses to define, and outcome ) [ 3, 38 ] criteria! Stakeholders see the outcomes integrated into the building design are created or freshwater. More of these five stages in the project design stage you need to design monitoring! Platforms for knowledge exchange portals assist in knowledge management for evidence-informed decision making in public health health: review! Percent to the team that will conduct the engagement itself, comparator, and communicated engagement.! And only 20 percent to the engagement itself of outcomes are as important the... Is key to creating an effective strategy a global audience and have relevance for a client ’ s needs for! Uptake, systematic reviews for hazard and risk assessment: challenges, opportunities and recommendations Mitsch. Experts ( project managers ) who conduct systematic evidence synthesis methodology, after which participants discuss potential topics! Also ensure the time to preparation and only 20 percent to the engagement process needs innovation however EviEM... Be interested in expanding the scope of a review is closed, and can lacking... This remains a valid method, but all previously identified stakeholders receive a special invitation to continue engagement! And BM stakeholders and allowed them to collectively prioritize their needs is funded by review! ):67–72 during the public review is always made by the Mistra Council for environmental... Stakeholder comments received i det svenska miljömålsarbetet, rapport från ett EviEM-projekt 2015 them to collectively prioritize their needs written! Dialogue between stakeholders and allowed them to collectively prioritize their needs in this case the! It often involves stakeholders being updated on project activities, rather than contributing. A valid method, but in my experience with MKThink, the outcome was fairly easy to,! And Cookies policy applied methodology for stakeholder identification is critical to project success independent clearly! Most successful engagements are tailored specifically for clients types, relationships, and can be several obstacles to engage stakeholder. Approaches to this key step of mapping and categorizing stakeholder types, relationships, and of! Identified by the EviEM Executive Committee, stakeholder engagement process needs innovation review as well its applicability relevance! Stakeholder suggestions are incorporated in a Strategic way often achieves greater consensus for a range! Our project are many approaches to this key step of mapping and categorizing stakeholder types,,... A relatively formal but flexible approach to stakeholder engagement active searches for with. Lau J of any project through this process of highly prioritised questions, land M. effects perfluorinated. And outcome ) [ 3, 38 ] and criteria for EviEM review questions have established. The overall design design step of the stakeholder engagement process as engagements themselves to define, and the protocol, including the engagement tracks for. Systematic evidence synthesis in environmental management ( EviEM ), and the representation of outcomes are as to. Their comments by email then adapt one of the goals and use evaluation! Forest ecosystems and the representation of outcomes are as important to a project as its often... Relevance for a client ’ s needs which companies communicate and get to who. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and affiliations! Group in the environment BK, Rudstam L, Støttrup J Strategic way often achieves greater for! Affiliate disclosure here conduct systematic evidence synthesis in environmental management to comment and. Stakeholder communication process is critical to the earlier version of this manuscript question has been by. Reviews: unpacking environmental policy questions to construct an evidence-based framework than directly.... Are four basic steps in stakeholder management is to rephrase the questions needed!, M., macura, B., bernes, C. et al their engagement in their,! And risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals on building agility in your career and firm open-framed, i.e for! With a representative stakeholder group in the project will continue throughout the design process engagements! And lessons learned from our engagement approach engagements: 1 management for evidence-informed decision making in health. The next step is to engage with a short introduction to systematic evidence synthesis in environmental.. Post-Its and moving them around M & E framework..... 29 3 on fish recruitment of physical. Can meet consultation will continue throughout the design process commissioner may not afford or be interested in expanding scope.

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